Born in Athens in 1977, Kharálampos Goyós studied music theory with composers Philippos Tsalahouris and Dimitris Lionis. He is a graduate of the Department of Music Studies of the University of Athens, where his teachers included, among others, important composers and music theorists such as Panagiotis Adam, Theodore Antoniou, George Fitsioris, Kostas Klavvas, Dimitris Sykias and George Zervos. Goyós has collaborated with most important Greek venues and institutions (Greek National Opera, Athens Epidaurus Festival, Athens and Thessaloniki Concert Halls, National Theatre of Greece, Greek Art Theatre “Karolos Koun”, Municipal Theatre of Piraeus, Onassis Stegi, Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Center, Michael Cacoyannis Foundation, BIOS, Neos Kosmos Theatre, Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation, Orchestra of Colours, Hellenic Ensemble of Contemporary Music, dissonArt ensemble, ARTéfacts ensemble, CHÓRES female vocal ensemble, Documenta, Art Athina et al.).

His opera Little Red Riding Hood and the (Good) Wolf (1998) has been released on CD by the Orchestra of Colours under the direction of Vassilis Christopoulos. His opera A Body (2007), after the short story by Camillo Boito, was commissioned and premiered by the Experimental Stage of the Greek National Opera. In 2008, Damage, an Opera in Seven Meals (2004), Goyós's controversial adaptation of the novel Damage by Josephine Hart, was presented as part of the prestigious Athens Festival. His "populist oratorio"​ New Greece (The Making-Of) has been released as a digital album on the Fytini label. In 2017, his music for Sophocles's Antigone (National Theatre of Greece, dir. Stathis Livathinos) was awarded the Best Music prize at the Cyprus Theatre Awards. His opera Anthony's Death (2020), based on the memory of the anime series Candy Candy and the work of Slavoj Žižek, was commissioned and video premiered by the Alternative Stage of the GNO during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Goyós is a co-founder of the independent Athens music theatre company The Beggars'​ Operas. In 2012, Yasou Aida!, a contemporary political reworking of Verdi's Aida by Goyós, Alexandros Efklidis and Dimitris Dimopoulos co-produced by the Neuköllner Oper and the Thessaloniki Concert Hall was played in Berlin, Thessaloniki and Athens to accolades of the international press and awarded the "Karolos Koun"​ honourable mention by the Association of Greek Theatre and Music Critics. This was followed by two further controversial political opera paraphrases, AirRossini, or We Are the 1%, commissioned and premiered by the Neuköllner Oper in 2013, and Twilight of the Debts, commissioned and premiered by the Alternative Stage of the GNO in 2017/18.

Hailed by the Greek press as "the hottest name in alternative opera"​ (Eleftherotypia) and "the 'Wunderkind'​ of Greek music theatre" (Realnews), Goyós is considered as one of the most talented Greek musicians of his generation. He formerly taught at the Music Theatre Workshop of the Municipal and Regional Theatre of Patras, and currently teaches at the Athens Conservatoire and the Drama School of the National Theatre of Greece.